Genes List

Gene Gene Source Product Function
Trait: 2,4-D herbicide tolerance
aad-1 synthetic form of the aad-1 gene from Sphingobium herbicidovorans aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase 1 (AAD-1) protein detoxifies 2,4-D herbicide by side-chain degradation and degrades the R-enantiomers of aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides
aad-12 Delftia acidovorans aryloxyalkanoate di-oxygenase 12 (AAD-12) protein catalyzes the side chain degradation of 2,4-D herbicide
Trait: Altered lignin production
ccomt (inverted repeat) Medicago sativa (alfalfa) dsRNA that suppresses endogenous S-adenosyl-L-methionine: trans-caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCOMT gene) RNA transcript levels via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway reduces content of guaiacyl (G) lignin
EgCAld5H Eucalyptus grandis CAld5H enzyme regulates the syringyl monolignol pathway;
Trait: Anti-allergy
7crp synthetic form of tolerogenic protein from Cryptomeria japonica modified cry j 1 and cry j 2 pollen antigens containing seven major human T cell epitopes triggers mucosal immune tolerance to cedar pollen allergens
Trait: Antibiotic resistance
aad Escherichia coli 3''(9)-O-aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase enzyme allows selection for resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics such as spectinomycin and streptomycin
aph4 (hpt) Escherichia coli hygromycin-B phosphotransferase (hph) enzyme allows selection for resistance to the antibiotic hygromycin B
bla Escherichia coli beta lactamase enzyme detoxifies beta lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin
nptII Escherichia coli Tn5 transposon neomycin phosphotransferase II enzyme allows transformed plants to metabolize neomycin and kanamycin antibiotics during selection
spc Escherichia coli spectinomycin adenyl transferase enzyme (not expressed in plant tissues) confers resistance to spectinomycin/streptomycin antibiotics, which permits prokaryotic selection
Trait: Coleopteran insect resistance
cry34Ab1 Bacillus thuringiensis strain PS149B1 Cry34Ab1 delta-endotoxin confers resistance to coleopteran insects particularly corn rootworm by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry35Ab1 Bacillus thuringiensis strain PS149B1 Cry35Ab1 delta-endotoxin confers resistance to coleopteran insects particularly corn rootworm by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry3A Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis cry3A delta endotoxin confers resistance to coleopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry3Bb1 Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kumamotoensis Cry3Bb1 delta endotoxin confers resistance to coleopteran insects particularly corn rootworm by selectively damaging their midgut lining
dvsnf7 Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) double-stranded RNA transcript containing a 240 bp fragment of the WCR Snf7 gene RNAi interference resulting to down-regulation of the function of the targeted Snf7 gene leading to Western Corn Rootworm mortality.
mcry3A synthetic form of cry3A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis modified Cry3A delta-endotoxin confers resistance to coleopteran insects particularly corn rootworm pests by selectively damaging their midgut lining
Trait: Delayed fruit softening
pg (sense or antisense) Lycopersicon esculentum no functional polygalacturonase enzyme is produced (transcription of the endogenous enzyme is suppressed by a gene silencing mechanism) inhibits the production of polygalacturonase enzyme responsible for the breakdown of pectin molecules in the cell wall, and thus causes delayed softening of the fruit
Trait: Delayed ripening/senescence
acc (truncated) Lycopersicon esculentum modified transcript of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene suppresses the normal expression of the native ACC synthase gene, resulting in reduced ethylene production and delayed fruit ripening
acc (truncated) Dianthus caryophyllus modified transcript of 1-amino-cyclopropane -1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene causes reduced synthesis of endogenous ethylene through a gene silencing mechanism and thus delayed senescence and longer vase life
accd Pseudomonas chlororaphis 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase enzyme metabolizes the precursor of the fruit ripening hormone ethylene, resulting in delayed fruit ripening
anti-efe Lycopersicon esculentum antisense RNA of 1-amino-cyclopropane -1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) gene (no functional ACO enzyme is produced) causes delayed ripening by suppressing the production of ethylene via silencing of the ACO gene that encodes an ethylene-forming enzyme
sam-k Escherichia coli bacteriophage T3 S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase enzyme causes delayed ripening by reducing the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a substrate for ethylene production
Trait: Dicamba herbicide tolerance
dmo Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain DI-6 dicamba mono-oxygenase enzyme confers tolerance to the herbicide dicamba (2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid) by using dicamba as substrate in an enzymatic reaction
Trait: Drought stress tolerance
cspB Bacillus subtilis cold shock protein B maintains normal cellular functions under water stress conditions by preserving RNA stability and translation
EcBetA Escherichia coli choline dehydrogenase catalyzes the production of the osmoprotectant compound glycine betaine conferring tolerance to water stress
Hahb-4 Helianthus annuus Isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding the transcription factor Hahb-4 the transcription factor Hahb-4 binds to a dehydration transcription regulating region of plant
RmBetA Rhizobium meliloti choline dehydrogenase catalyzes the production of the osmoprotectant compound glycine betaine conferring tolerance to water stress
Trait: Enhanced Photosynthesis/Yield
bbx32 Arabidopsis thaliana protein that interacts with one or more endogenous transcription factors to regulate the plant’s day/night physiological processes to modulate plant's diurnal biology and to enhance growth and reproductive development
Trait: Fertility restoration
barstar Bacillus amyloliquefaciens barnase ribonuclease inhibitor restores fertility by repressing the inhibitory effect of barnase on tapetum cells of the anther
ms45 Zea mays ms45 protein restores fertility by restoring the development of the microspore cell wall that gives rise to pollen
Trait: Fungal Disease Resistance
Rpi-vnt1 Solanum venturii late blight resistance protein confers resistance to potato late blight
Trait: Glufosinate herbicide tolerance
bar Streptomyces hygroscopicus phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme eliminates herbicidal activity of glufosinate (phosphinothricin) herbicides by acetylation
pat Streptomyces viridochromogenes phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme eliminates herbicidal activity of glufosinate (phosphinothricin) herbicides by acetylation
pat (syn) synthetic form of pat gene derived from Streptomyces viridochromogenes strain Tu 494 phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme eliminates herbicidal activity of glufosinate (phosphinothricin) herbicides by acetylation
Trait: Glyphosate herbicide tolerance
2mepsps Zea mays 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase enzyme (double mutant version) decreases binding affinity for glyphosate, thereby increasing tolerance to glyphosate herbicide
cp4 epsps (aroA:CP4) Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 herbicide tolerant form of 5-enolpyruvulshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme decreases binding affinity for glyphosate, thereby conferring increased tolerance to glyphosate herbicide
epsps (Ag) Arthrobacter globiformis 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate-synthase enzyme confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicides
epsps grg23ace5 synthetic gene; similar to epsps grg23 gene from soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis modified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein or EPSPS ACE5 protein confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicides
gat4601 Bacillus licheniformis glyphosate N-acetyltransferase enzyme catalyzes the inactivation of glyphosate,conferring tolerance to glyphosate herbicides
gat4621 Bacillus licheniformis glyphosate N-acetyltransferase enzyme catalyzes the inactivation of glyphosate, conferring tolerance to glyphosate herbicides
goxv247 Ochrobactrum anthropi strain LBAA glyphosate oxidase confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicides by degrading glyphosate into aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate
mepsps Zea mays modified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicides
Trait: Increased Ear Biomass
athb17 Arabidopsis thaliana a protein of the class II family of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors. Modulates plant growth and development and regulates gene expression
Trait: Isoxaflutole herbicide tolerance
hppdPF W336 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A32 modified p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd) enzyme confers tolerance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides (such as isoxaflutole) by reducing the specificity for the herbicide's bioactive constituent
Trait: Lepidopteran insect resistance
cry1A Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin of the Cry1A group confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry1A.105 Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kumamotoensis Cry1A.105 protein which comprises the Cry1Ab, Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry1Ab (truncated) synthetic form of Cry1Ab from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kumamotoensis Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry1Ab-Ac synthetic fusion gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab-Ac delta endotoxin (fusion protein) confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki strain HD73 Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry1C synthetic gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1C delta-endotoxin confers resistance to lepidopteran insects, specifically Spodoptera
cry1F Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai Cry1F delta-endotoxin confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry1Fa2 synthetic form of cry1F gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai modified Cry1F protein confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry2Ab2 Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kumamotoensis Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry2Ae Bacillus thuringiensis subsp Dakota Cry2Ae delta-endotoxin confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
cry9C Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi strain BTS02618A Cry9C delta endotoxin confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
mocry1F synthetic form of cry1F gene from Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai modified Cry1F protein confers resistance to lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
pinII Solanum tuberosum protease inhibitor protein enhances defense against insect predators by reducing the digestibility and nutritional quality of the leaves
vip3A(a) Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88 VIP3A vegetative insecticidal protein confers resistance to feeding damage caused by lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
vip3Aa20 Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88 vegetative insecticidal protein (vip3Aa variant) confers resistance to feeding damage caused by lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut
Trait: Male sterility
barnase Bacillus amyloliquefaciens barnase ribonuclease (RNAse) enzyme causes male sterility by interfering with RNA production in the tapetum cells of the anther
dam Escherichia coli DNA adenine methylase enzyme confers male sterility by interfering with the production of functional anthers and pollen
zm-aa1 Zea mays alpha amylase enzyme hydrolyses starch and makes pollen sterile when expressed in immature pollen
Trait: Mannose metabolism
pmi Escherichia coli Phosphomannose Isomerase (PMI) enzyme metabolizes mannose and allows positive selection for recovery of transformed plants
Trait: Mesotrione Herbicide Tolerance
avhppd-03 Oat (Avena sativa) p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase Tolerance to Mesotrione herbicide
Trait: Modified alpha amylase
amy797E synthetic gene derived from Thermococcales spp. thermostable alpha-amylase enzyme enhances bioethanol production by increasing the thermostability of amylase used in degrading starch
Trait: Modified amino acid
cordapA Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase enzyme increases the production of amino acid lysine
Trait: Modified flower color
5AT Torenia sp. anthocyanin 5-acyltransferase (5AT) enzyme alters the production of a type of anthocyanin called delphinidin
bp40 (f3'5'h) Viola wittrockiana Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) enzyme catalyzes the production of the blue-coloured anthocyanin pigment delphinidin and its derivatives
cytb5 Petunia (Petunia hybrida) Cytochrome b5 Cyt b5 protein acts as an electron donor to the Cyt P450 enzyme and is required for full activity of the Cyt P450 enzyme Flavinoid 3' 5' hydroxylase in vivo and the generation of purple/ blue flower colours.
dfr Petunia hybrida dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) hydroxylase enzyme catalyzes the production of the blue-coloured anthocyanin pigment delphinidin and its derivatives
dfr-diaca Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase enzyme functions in the biosynthesis pathway of the pink/ red-coloured anthocyandin 3-O-(6-O-malylglucoside) pigment in carnations
hfl (f3'5'h) Petunia hybrida Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) enzyme catalyzes the production of the blue-coloured anthocyanin pigment delphinidin and its derivatives
sfl (f3'5'h) Sage (Salvia splendens) Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of a group of blue coloured anthocyanins called delphinidins
Trait: Modified oil/fatty acid
fad2-1A (sense and antisense) Glycine max no functional enzyme is produced (production of delta-12 desaturase enzyme is suppressed by RNA interference) reduces desaturation of 18:1 oleic acid to 18:2 linoleic acid; increases the levels of monounsaturated oleic acid and decreases the levels of saturated linoleic acid in the seed
fatb1-A (sense and antisense segments) Glycine max no functional enzyme is produced (production of FATB enzymes or acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases is suppressed by RNA interference) decreases the transport of saturated fatty acids out of the plastid, thereby increasing their availability to desaturation to 18:1 oleic acid; reduces the levels of saturated fatty acids and increases the levels of 18:1 oleic acid
gm-fad2-1 (partial sequence) Glycine max no functional enzyme is produced (expression of the endogenous fad2-1 gene encoding omega-6 desaturase enzyme was suppressed by the partial gm-fad2-1 gene fragment) blocks the formation of linoleic acid from oleic acid (by silencing the fad2-1 gene) and allows accumulation of oleic acid in the seed
gm-fad2-1 (silencing locus) Glycine max no functional enzyme is produced (production of endogenous delta-12 desaturase enzyme was suppressed by an additional copy of the gm-fad2-1 gene via a gene silencing mechanism) blocks the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid (by silencing the endogenous fad2-1 gene) and allows accumulation of monounsaturated oleic acid in the seed
Nc.Fad3 Neurospora crassa delta 15 desaturase protein desaturates certain endogenous fatty acids resulting in the production of stearidonic acid (SDA), an omega-3 fatty acid
Pj.D6D Primula juliae delta 6 desaturase protein desaturates certain endogenous fatty acids resulting in the production of stearidonic acid (SDA), an omega-3 fatty acid
te Umbellularia californica (bay leaf) 12:0 ACP thioesterase  enzyme increases the level of triacylglycerides containing esterified lauric acid (12:0) 
Trait: Modified starch/carbohydrate
gbss (antisense fragment) Solanum tuberosum no functional granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) enzyme is produced; production of GBSS enzyme is suppressed by a gene silencing mechanism reduces the levels of amylose and increases the levels of amylopectin in starch granules
pPhL Solanum tuberosum double stranded RNA Generates with (16) double stranded RNA that triggers the degradation of PhL transcripts to limit the formation of reducing sugars through starch degradation
pR1 Solanum tuberosum double stranded RNA Generates with (15) double stranded RNA that triggers the degradation of R1 transcripts to limit the formation of reducing sugars through starch degradation
Trait: Multiple insect resistance
API Sagittaria sagittifolia (arrowhead) arrowhead protease inhibitor protein A or B confers resistance to a wide range of insect pests
CpTI Vigna unguiculata trypsin inhibitor confers resistance to a wide range of insect pests
ecry3.1Ab synthetic form of Cry3A gene and Cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis chimeric (Cry3A-Cry1Ab) delta endotoxin protein confers resistance to coleopteran and lepidopteran insects by selectively damaging their midgut lining
Trait: Nicotine reduction
NtQPT1 (antisense) Nicotiana tabacum  antisense RNA of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPTase) gene; no functional QPTase enzyme is produced suppresses the transcription of the QPTase gene, thereby reducing the production of nicotinic acid, a precursor for nicotine
Trait: Non-Browning Phenotype
PGAS PPO suppression gene Malus domestica double stranded RNA (dsRNA) double stranded RNA (dsRNA)from the suppression transcript is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct the cleavage of the target mRNA through sequence complementarity and suppresses PPO resulting in apples with a non-browning phenotype.
Trait: Nopaline synthesis
nos Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 nopaline synthase enzyme catalyses the synthesis of nopaline, which permits the identification of transformed plant embryos
Trait: Oxynil herbicide tolerance
bxn Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. Ozaenae nitrilase enzyme eliminates herbicidal activity of oxynil herbicides (eg. bromoxynil)
Trait: Phytase production
phyA Aspergillus niger var. van Tieghem 3-phytase enzyme increases the breakdown of plant phytates which bind phosphorus and makes the latter available to monogastric animals
phyA2 Aspergillus niger strain 963 phytase enzyme degrades phytate phosphorus in seeds into inorganic phosphate to be available to animals when used as feed
Trait: Reduced Acrylamide Potential
asn1 Solanum tuberosum double stranded RNA Generates with (9) double stranded RNA that triggers the degradation of Asn1 transcripts to impair asparagine formation
Trait: Reduced Black Spot
ppo5 Solanum verrucosum double stranded RNA Generates with (8) double stranded RNA that triggers the degradation of Ppo5 transcripts to block black spot bruise development
Trait: Sulfonylurea herbicide tolerance
als Arabidopsis thaliana herbicide tolerant enzyme acetolactate synthase (als) allows the synthesis of essential amino acids in the presence of sulfonylurea herbicides
csr1-2 Arabidopsis thaliana modified acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit (AtAHASL) confers tolerance to imidazolinone herbicides
gm-hra Glycine max modified acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme confers tolerance to applications of sulfonylurea – based herbicides
S4-HrA Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi herbicide tolerant acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme allows the plant to synthesize essential amino acids in the presence of sulfonylurea herbicides
surB Nicotiana tabacum herbicide tolerant acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme confers tolerance to sulfonylurea herbicides and other acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides
zm-hra Zea mays herbicide tolerant acetolactase synthase (als) enzyme confers tolerance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides such as sulfonylurea and imidazolinone
Trait: Viral disease resistance
ac1 (sense and antisense) Bean Golden Mosaic Virus (BGMV) sense and antisense RNA of viral replication protein (Rep); no functional viral replication protein is produced inhibits the synthesis of the viral replication protein of the Bean Golden Mosaic Virus (BGMV), thereby conferring resistance to the BGMV
cmv_cp Cucumber Mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV) coat protein of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) confers resistance to cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism
plrv_orf1 Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) putative replicase domain of the potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) confers resistance to potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) through gene silencing mechanism
plrv_orf2 Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) putative helicase domain of the potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) confers resistance to potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) through gene silencing mechanism
ppv_cp Plum pox virus (PPV) coat protein of plum pox virus (PPV) confers resistance to plum pox virus (PPV) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism
prsv_cp Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) coat protein (CP) of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) confers resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism
prsv_rep Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) replicase domain of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) confers resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) through gene silencing mechanism
pvy_cp Potato Virus Y (PVY) coat protein of the potato virus Y (PVY) confers resistance to potato virus Y (PVY) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism
wmv_cp Watermelon Mosaic Potyvirus 2 (WMV2) coat protein of watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV2) confers resistance to watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV2) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism
zymv_cp Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Potyvirus (ZYMV) coat protein of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) confers resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism
Trait: Visual marker
dsRed2 Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein produces red stain on transformed tissue, which allows visual selection
uidA Escherichia coli beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme produces blue stain on treated transformed tissue, which allows visual selection
Trait: Volumetric Wood Increase
cel1 Arabidopsis thaliana CEL1 recombinant protein promotes a faster growth